Following are the most common ways of acquiring Canadian citizenship.
Born in Canada
According to Citizenship Act, any person born in Canada is a Canadian citizen. This rule applies even if neither parent is a Canadian citizen and even if one or both parents are in Canada illegally. Some locations outside Canada are deemed to be in Canada for the operation of the rule, including Canadian ships and aircraft registered in Canada. Persons born on these vessels are Canadian citizens. There is an exception to this rule, a child born to a foreign national who is in Canada as the representative of a foreign government or an international agency is not a Canadian citizen birth.
Born Outside Canada to a Canadian Citizen
A person is a Canadian citizen if he was born outside Canada and at the time of birth at least one of his parents was a Canadian Citizen. This rule is applicable even if the child has no other ties with Canada than having Canadian parents and even if child never resides or visits Canada. People born before April 17, 2009 who are second or subsequent-generations are Canadian citizens but they must apply for citizenship certificate and IRCC will advise them what steps they need to take before their 28th birthday in order to retain their Canadian citizenship. After April 17, 2009, children born abroad to a parent who derived her citizenship from a Canadian parent who was also born abroad will no longer automatically become Canadian citizen.
Citizenship by Adoption
The child born outside Canada and adopted by a Canadian citizen is same as the biological child born abroad to a Canadian citizen. The minor child adopted by a Canadian citizen after January 1, 1947 can obtain citizenship without first obtaining the permanent residency, provide that the adoption was in the best interest of the child and it created a genuine parent-child relationship.
Permanent residents can apply for the Canadian citizenship if they meet certain requirements. They must:
- be 18 years of age and in case of child must be included in the application of parent who is over 18 years;
- be permanent residents of Canada;
- meet the residency requirements;
- not be under removal orders;
- have adequate knowledge of English or French;
- pass the citizenship test.